#### Inference-Methods

*Students consider how methods of generating, collecting, and analyzing data may affect the inferences made given the context of the investigation. *

#### Teacher Reflection Prompts

- How familiar am I with the investigative methods that are employed to create the inference? If I am not familiar, are there resources available?
- How can I engage student in exploring how different methods can create different inferences given the same context?
- How do I engage students in assessing how their inferences have changed as a result of different investigative methods?

#### Student Prompts

- How are inferences affected by the methods used?
- How would inference change if you had employed a different method (ie. sampling more people, sampling more locations, etc)?
- Which investigative method is most appropriated to create an inference given the context of the situation?

#### Inference-Technology

*Students consider the types of tools that can help with inference making given the context of the investigation. *

#### Teacher Reflection Prompts

- What tools do I know of that can be used for inference making? If I am not familiar with these tools, what resources can I look up?
- How do I engage students in identifying certain criteria for determine which inference making tool should be used based on the context of the situation?
- How do I engage students in comparing the pros and cons of different inference making tools?

#### Student Prompts

- What tool is used to support the inference making process?
- What tools can help with performing statistical tests to support inference making?
- How is the tool appropriate given the context (ie. the question being investigated, the people using this tool, etc)?
- How might one tool be more preferable for inference making than another tool (ie. based on context, ease of access/use)?

#### Inference-Communications

*Considering the context of the investigation, students communicate and/or evaluate inferences based on the data. *

#### Teacher Reflection Prompts

- How do I engage students in considering when an informal or formal inference is appropriate?
- How do I engage students in communicating inferences in a manner that is appropriate given the context of the investigation?
- How do I engage students in exploring the significance of uncertainty in an inference?

#### Student Prompts

- What does the data say about the population?
- How should the inference be communicated (ie. how it should be worded, who is it choosing to include, etc) so that it is appropriate given the context of the investigation?
- How can you decide whether you trust this inference or not?
- Is it communicated with a certain level of uncertainty? Were statistical tests mentioned when making this inference? How might that influence your interpretation of the inference?
- When might an informal or formal inference be appropriate for the situation?

#### Inference-Ethics

*Students consider whether inferences made pose ethical concerns given the context of the investigation.*

#### Teacher Reflection Prompts

- How can I handle ethical issues that arise in a sensitive, caring, and empathetic way?
- How can I begin engaging students in considering who may be affected negatively by a certain inference?
- How can I engage students in reimagining an inference that is fair and just?

#### Student Prompts

- How does a particular inference affect the audience’s understanding of the population being mentioned in the inference?
- Is the inference being made fair? Who might be hurt by such a statement?
- If ethical concerns are posed, how might the inference need to be adjusted?